Quantum computing is all the rage these days. But what, exactly, is it? In this blog post, we will discuss 11 awesome facts about quantum computing that will help you understand this fascinating technology. Quantum computers are able to perform calculations at a much faster rate than traditional computers. They can also solve problems that are too complex for traditional computers to handle. Keep reading for more interesting facts about quantum computing!

**Who invented quantum computer?**

Invented in 1935 by Max Delbrück at the University of Berlin, Germany, the first quantum mechanical computers were built by Richard P. Feynman and John R. Beth in 1955.

**How does quantum computing work?**

Quantum computing relies on the principles of quantum mechanics to perform calculations. Quantum computers use quantum bits, or qubits. Qubits are units of information that can exist in more than one state simultaneously. This allows quantum computers to perform multiple calculations at the same time.

**What are qubits?**

A qubit is a two-state quantum system that can exist in both "0" and "1". A qubit can represent either 0 or 1 as long as it's not measured yet. For example: if you have a coin with heads and tails, you could use a qubit to represent whether the coin is heads up or tails down. If you don't know which way it is, you can measure its state and find out immediately. You can also store multiple values in one qubit.

**How fast is quantum computing?**

Quantum computers can perform computations that would be impossible on a classical computer in polynomial time (meaning that there exists an algorithm that runs in polynomial time). This means that they can solve problems exponentially faster than any known classical algorithm.

**What are the benefits of quantum computing?**

The benefits of quantum computing include its speed and ability to solve problems that are too complex for traditional computers. Quantum computers can also help with optimization problems, such as finding the shortest route between two points or the most efficient way to use resources.

**What are some real-world applications of quantum computing?**

Some real-world applications of quantum computing include:

**Artificial Intelligence**

A primary application for quantum computing is artificial intelligence (AI). AI is based on the principle of learning from experience, becoming more accurate as feedback is given, until the computer program appears to exhibit “intelligence.” This feedback is based on calculating the probabilities for many possible choices, and so AI is an ideal candidate for quantum computation . It promises to disrupt every industry, from automotives to medicine , and it's been said AI will be to the twenty-first century what electricity was to the twentieth For example, Lockheed Martin plans to use its D-Wave quantum computer to test autopilot software that is currently too complex for classical computers, and Google is using a quantum computer to design software that can distinguish cars from landmarks. We have already reached the point where AI is creating more AI , and so its importance will rapidly escalate.

Source: singularityhub.com

**Cryptography**

Most online security currently depends on the difficulty of factoring large numbers into primes. While this can presently be accomplished by using digital computers to search through every possible factor, the immense time required makes “cracking the code” expensive and impractical.

Quantum computers can perform such factoring exponentially more efficiently than digital computers, meaning such security methods will soon become obsolete.

New cryptography methods are being developed , though it may take time: in August 2015 the NSA began introducing a list of quantum-resistant cryptography methods that would resist quantum computers, and in April 2016 the National Institute of Standards and Technology began a public evaluation process lasting four to six years.

There are also promising quantum encryption methods being developed using the one-way nature of quantum entanglement. City-wide networks have already been demonstrated in several countries, and Chinese scientists recently announced they successfully sent entangled photons from an orbiting “quantum” satellite to three separate base stations back on Earth.

Source: singularityhub.com

**Financial Modeling**

Modern markets are some of the most complicated systems in existence. While we have developed increasingly scientific and mathematical tools to address this, it still suffers from one major difference between other scientific fields: there's no controlled setting in which to run experiments.

To solve this, investors and analysts have turned to quantum computing . One immediate advantage is that the randomness inherent to quantum computers is congruent to the stochastic nature of financial markets . Investors often wish to evaluate the distribution of outcomes under an extremely large number of scenarios generated at random.

Another advantage quantum offers is that financial operations such as arbitrage may require many path-dependent steps, the number of possibilities quickly outpacing the capacity of a digital computer.

Source: singularityhub.com

**What are some of the challenges with quantum computing?**

One of the biggest challenges with quantum computing is that it is very difficult to build a large-scale quantum computer. This is because qubits are very fragile and need to be isolated from the outside world in order to remain in their quantum state.

Another challenge is that quantum computers are susceptible to errors. This is because they rely on a phenomenon called "quantum interference" to function properly. If this interference is disrupted, it can cause the quantum computer to make mistakes.

**11 awesome facts about quantum computing**

**11 awesome facts about quantum computing**

- (AI Multiple) In 2016, quantum computing had a global market value of $89 million. This figure is expected to grow more than 10x by 2025, reaching $949 million. This estimate was based on a CAGR of 30% from 2017 to 2025. (seedscientific.com)
- Percentage of large companies planing to create initiatives around quantum computing by 2025, per Gartner. (investopedia.com)
- On December 17, 2018, the company IonQ introduced the first commercial trapped-ion quantum computer, with a program length of over 60 two-qubit gates, 11 fully connected qubits, 55 addressable pairs, one-qubit gate error <0.03% and two-qubit gate error (en.wikipedia.org)
- Quantum computer deals with particles much smaller than the size of atoms. At such smaller scales, rules of physics do not make any sense. This is where exciting things begin to happen. Particles could move back and forth or can even exist simultaneously. These types of computers can increase computational power beyond what is achievable by today's conventional computers. (rankred.com)
- Data encoded in a quantum state cannot be copied. If you try to read this data, its quantum state will be changed . The feature could be used to identify eavesdropping in quantum key distribution. (en.wikipedia.org)
- However, things get really interesting with quantum computers. Since they use quantum tunneling , they will reduce the power consumption by a factor of 100 to 1000. (arxiv.org)
- Quantum machines would be able to exponentially speed up the rate of machine learning operations, reducing the time from hundreds of thousands of years to mere seconds. (phys.org)
- In 2020, researchers developed Sliq : an easy-to-understand high-level programming language for quantum computers. (dl.acm.org)
- Director of engineering at Google Hartmut Neven also noted that quantum computers could help build better climate models that could give us more insight into how humans are influencing the environment. These models are what we build our estimates of future warming on, and help us determine what steps need to be taken now to prevent disasters. (businessinsider.com)
- (Bernard Marr & Co.) Quantum computers are incredible, but they are not suitable for simple tasks like emailing. This means that traditional computers will not lose their place since quantum computers should be used to solve incredibly complicated problems. (seedscientific.com)
- (Scientific American) There are more dangers of quantum computing. For instance, one powerful quantum computer could crack even the most cryptographic algorithms that keep our data safe. In the wrong hands, it could jeopardize the data held by the stock exchange, hospitals, banks, etc. (seedscientific.com)

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